Zhang Wuji is the fictional protagonist of the wuxia novel The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber by Jin Yong.

Early life[]

Zhang Wuji was born on Ice Fire Island. His father, Zhang Cuishan, is the fifth apprentice of Zhang Sanfeng, the founder of the Wudang Sect. His mother, Yin Susu, is the daughter of Yin Tianzheng, the leader of the Heavenly Eagle Cult. He was named by his godfather, Xie Xun, in memory of Xie Xun's deceased son, Xie Wuji. He spends his childhood on the island and learns some basic survival skills, martial arts and literacy skills from his parents and godfather. When he turns nine, he returns to the mainland with his parents, while Xie Xun refuses to leave and remains on the island. Upon their return to the mainland, the Zhang family attract much attention from many martial artists in the wulin (martial artists' community) who are after Xie Xun and the Dragon Slaying Saber. The Xuanming Elders kidnap Zhang Wuji and severely injure him with their 'Xuanming Divine Palm', but Zhang Sanfeng saves the boy. Zhang Wuji's parents commit suicide after refusing to reveal Xie Xun's whereabouts. Zhang Sanfeng brings the orphaned boy back to the Wudang Sect and tries to cure him of his injuries, but with minimal success. After two years, Zhang Sanfeng brings Zhang Wuji to seek treatment elsewhere and they encounter Chang Yuchun and Zhou Zhiruo. Zhang Sanfeng saves them and entrusts Zhang Wuji to Chang Yuchun's care. Chang Yuchun brings Zhang Wuji to Butterfly Valley to seek help from the eccentric physician Hu Qingniu. Hu Qingniu partially succeeds in healing Zhang Wuji by slowing down the effects of his injuries, and indirectly imparts his medical knowledge to the boy. Zhang Wuji also learns some toxicology from Wang Nangu, Hu Qingniu's wife.

Discovering the Nine Yang Manual[]

While recuperating in Butterfly Valley, Zhang Wuji meets Ji Xiaofu of the Emei Sect and her daughter, Yang Buhui, and becomes close to them. After Ji Xiaofu is killed by Abbess Miejue, Zhang Wuji brings Yang Buhui to her father, Yang Xiao, in the Kunlun Mountains. He encounters Zhu Jiuzhen later and has a crush on her. Her family accepts him and agrees to let him marry her. However, he discovers later that the Zhu family and others are actually planning to trick him into revealing his godfather's whereabouts. He narrowly escapes from death and ends up in Nameless Valley. Zhang Wuji lives in the valley for the next five years. Once, he performs surgery on a white ape suffering from abdominal pain and finds a bundle containing the Nine Yang Manual inside the ape's abdomen. He masters the skills in the manual and fully heals himself in the process. At the same time, he builds up immense inner energy and learns to use the Nine Yang Divine Skill.

Becoming the leader of the Ming Cult[]

Zhang Wuji returns to civilization and meets a disfigured girl, Zhu'er. Through a series of encounters, he reunites with Zhou Zhiruo, who is now a member of the Emei Sect. He also learns that the six major orthodox sects in the wulin are planning to attack the Ming Cult on Bright Peak. He ventures to the peak ahead of the attackers and uncovers an evil plot by Cheng Kun, his godfather's sworn enemy, to stir up conflict between the Ming Cult and the other sects. He escapes death again narrowly with Xiaozhao, a servant of Yang Xiao's family, whom he meets there. He finds the manual of the 'Heaven and Earth Great Shift' in a secret chamber and masters the skill, which allows him to reach a near-superhuman level of martial arts prowess. Zhang Wuji resolves the conflict between the Ming Cult and the six sects by representing the cult in fighting challengers from the other sects. He exposes Cheng Kun's evil plot and earns the respect of the orthodox sects. At the same time, he is also reunited with his father's fellows from the Wudang Sect and his maternal grandfather, Yin Tianzheng. The Ming Cult's members are grateful to Zhang from saving them and want him to take the cult's leadership position, which has been vacant since the death of the previous leader, Yang Dingtian. Zhang Wuji reluctantly agrees and reforms the cult to improve its relations with the other sects. Eventually, after Zhang Wuji after reunites with Zhang Sanfeng, and under his father's teacher's tutelage, he refines all the martial arts he had learned.


While departing to fetch his godfather back to the mainland, Zhang Wuji learns that the members of the six sects have been captured by the Yuan military after they left Bright Peak. The Yuan forces are led by the Mongol princess Zhao Min, who is attracted to Zhang Wuji after encountering him in a few skirmishes. Zhang Wuji succeeds in rescuing the captives and earns further respect from them. The sects finally resolve their animosity with the Ming Cult and become its allies. Meanwhile, Zhao Min has fallen in love with Zhang secretly and she frees the martial artists after an agreement with Zhang, telling him that he must fulfil three conditions. The first one is to allow her to follow him on his adventures, and she will tell him the other two conditions later. Zhang Wuji returns to Ice Fire Island with Zhao Min, Zhou Zhiruo and Xiaozhao, with Golden Flower Granny and her apprentice Yin Li (Zhu'er) secretly tracking them. When Zhang Wuji reunites with his godfather Xie Xun, their reunion is filled with danger as their enemies are coveting the Dragon Slaying Saber. They also meet members of the Persian Ming Cult. Xiaozhao agrees to leave with the Persians to be their leader to replace her mother. Meanwhile, Zhou Zhiruo secretly murders Yin Li and knocks out Zhang Wuji, Zhao Min and Xie Xun with drugs so that she can seize the Dragon Slaying Saber and Heaven Reliant Sword.

Return to the mainland[]

Zhou Zhiruo frames Zhao Min for Yin Li's murder by casting her adrift while she was unconscious. When Zhang Wuji awakes, he is shocked to see that Yin Li is dead and believes that Zhao Min is responsible. He returns to the mainland with Zhou Zhiruo and his godfather. Xie Xun and Zhou Zhiruo are captured by Cheng Kun and Chen Youliang, who are planning to stir up conflict in the wulin again. Zhang Wuji finds Zhao Min and wants to kill her to avenge Yin Li, but refrains from doing so as he still loves her and thinks she might be innocent. Zhang Wuji saves Zhou Zhiruo from Chen Youliang's clutches and foils Song Qingshu's attempt to take over the Wudang Sect. A love triangle gradually develops between him, Zhao Min and Zhou Zhiruo. He decides to marry Zhou Zhiruo to prove his loyalty to her. Zhao Min disrupts the wedding by saying that she knows where his godfather is held captive and telling him that her second condition (per their earlier agreement) is that he cannot marry Zhou Zhiruo. Zhou Zhiruo hates Zhao Min for disrupting the wedding and attacks her viciously with the 'Nine Yin White Bone Claw'.

Saving Xie Xun[]

Zhou Zhiruo swears to make Zhang Wuji pay for betraying her love and vows to kill Zhao Min. Zhang Wuji saves Zhao Min and they attend the Lion Slaying Ceremony at Shaolin Monastery, which is actually part of Cheng Kun's plot to destroy the wulin. Xie Xun is used as bait to lure everyone into a trap – as his fate will be decided by the champion of the martial arts contest. Zhou Zhiruo appears at the ceremony and defeats all challengers. Zhang Wuji almost defeats her but he hesitates at the critical moment and loses. Zhou Zhiruo agrees to allow Zhang Wuji to help her fight the three Shaolin elders guarding Xie Xun, as defeating them will clear the last obstacle to claiming the prisoner. Zhang Wuji succeeds in rescuing his godfather while Zhou Zhiruo meets her match at the hands of the Yellow Dress Maiden.


Zhang Wuji becomes a key figure in leading the Ming Cult and other rebel forces to overthrow the Yuan dynasty. The rebels defeat the Yuan forces numerous times and draw closer to achieving victory. Meanwhile, he discovers that Yin Li has survived and returned to take her revenge on Zhou Zhiruo. By then, it is clear to him that Zhou Zhiruo was behind the mysterious events on the island. Zhou Zhiruo feels guilty for her deeds and explains to Zhang Wuji that she has been bound by her oath to do so.[1] Meanwhile, Zhang Wuji announces his plans to marry Zhao Min, whom he has finally decided is his true love. Zhang Wuji leaves the Ming Cult after mistakenly believing that the cult members are plotting to assassinate him. However, he is unaware that it is actually Zhu Yuanzhang's plan to take control of the cult's military. Zhang Wuji permanently retires from the jianghu and names Yang Xiao as his successor. In the last chapter, Zhao Min tells Zhang Wuji that her third condition is for him to help her paint her eyebrows. The story ends here, but in another version, Zhou Zhiruo visits them and makes some cheeky remarks, reminding Zhang Wuji that he has also promised her to do something. She says, "I haven't thought of it yet. But I'm afraid that I might think of it on your wedding day with Zhao Min." Zhang Wuji looks at Zhao Min, then at Zhou Zhiruo, and drops the paintbrush.

Jin Yong's evaluation of Zhang Wuji[]

Zhang Wuji has a more complicated personality as compared to Guo Jing and Yang Guo. He possesses less heroic traits than them and has an equal balance of strengths and weaknesses. The presence of these humanly traits in him makes him more realistic as compared to the other two protagonists in the Condor Trilogy. Zhang Wuji's personality is strongly influenced by social factors and the people around him. He is often placed in situations in which he has no other choice but to adapt to. He has no chance of escaping from harsh reality. His relationships with his four love interests (Zhao Min, Zhou Zhiruo, Xiaozhao and Yin Li) are extremely complicated. He is very hesitant and indecisive on who his true love is. Apparently, he loves Zhao Min the most and makes that clear to Zhou Zhiruo at the end of the novel. However, one can really speculate whether, deep inside his heart, he really knows who his true love is,.

Although Zhang Wuji is a formidable martial artist and probably one of the best of his age, he is not a suitable candidate to be a leader. Undeniably, he maintains a morally upright character and adopts an altruistic approach to his fellows. However, he lacks the qualities and prerequisites of becoming a great leader. On a personal level, he is reluctant to become a leader and only obliges to take up the Ming Cult's leadership position to please his subordinates. He lacks strong power hungry ambitions that a typical leader must have in order for him/her to remain in power. The absence of this important trait in him clearly indicates that he will not become a strong leader and may eventually fail as one.[2]

Martial arts and skills[]

  • "Taiji Fist" (太極拳): Zhang Wuji learns this by merely observing Zhang Sanfeng demonstrating the skill to Yu Daiyan.
  • "Taiji Swordplay" (太極劍法 : Zhang Wuji learns this from Zhang Sanfeng after observing his grand-master demonstrating it once.
  • "Wudang Long Fist" (武當長拳): Zhang Wuji learns this from his father in his childhood.
  • "Cloud Ascending Ladder" (梯雲縱): Zhang Wuji learns it from his father in his childhood
  • "Heaven and Earth Great Shift" (乾坤大挪移): Zhang Wuji discovers the manual when he is trapped in the secret room with Xiaozhao. He masters the first six levels of the skill within hours – a feat no one had accomplished before – because his mastery of the Nine Yang Manual has already equipped him with a strong inner energy foundation.
  • "The Holy Flame Tablets" (聖火令): Zhang Wuji manages to seize the tablets from the three Persian messengers and masters the skills after Xiaozhao translates the text for him. The skills complement the 'Heaven and Earth Great Shift'. By mastering these skills.
  • "Nine Yang Divine Skill" (九陽神功): Zhang Wuji masters the skill after following instructions from the Nine Yang Manual and heals himself of the wounds inflicted by the Xuanming Elders, in addition to increasing his inner energy. The skill enhances his learning process and grants him access to mastering even more powerful skills which require a strong inner energy foundation. His success in mastering the 'Heaven and Earth Great Shift' is largely due to the inner energy foundation he built up earlier. The Wudang, Shaolin and Emei Sects have their less powerful and simplified versions of the skill after Zhang Sanfeng, Guo Xiang and Wuse memorized parts of the original Nine Yang Manual from Jueyuan. Zhang Wuji learns Wudang's simplified version of the skill from Zhang Sanfeng and developed a foundation for learning the full version later.
  • "Seven Injuries Fist" (七傷拳): Zhang Wuji learns this from his godfather in his childhood but only memorized the verses of the skills without really practicing it. He masters the skill when he grows older and his 'Nine Yang Divine Skill' actually helps him prevent the internal injuries.
  • "Dragon Claw Hand" (龍爪手): Zhang Wuji learns this from Shaolin's Kongxing during their fight at Bright Peak. He mentally notes down Kongxing's moves, figures out the counter-moves, and masters the skill in the process. This was possible because he learns the 'Heaven and Earth Great Shift' earlier, which allows him to sense Kongxing's inner energy flow when he uses the skill.
  • Medicine and toxicology: Zhang Wuji gained his medical knowledge from Hu Qingniu while recovering in Butterfly Valley. He uses his knowledge to solve problems he encounters when he practices the 'Nine Yang Divine Skill' and 'Heaven and Earth Great Shift'. He also learns toxicology from Wang Nangu.